Guilty Companies, Orally Administered Synephrine and Other Nucleotides
Just wanted to dedicate a thread to any companies incorporating this PEAK-ATP/oral nucleotide garbage into their formulas. Maybe your general consumer base is completely unaware however, this practice is akin to using sand as a filler, and it's time to be exposed. Side Effect Sports is by far the worst offender with the primary bulk of their products being worthless nucleotides that are rapidly & extensively annihilated via luminal & hepatic-dephosphorylation/degradation following oral administration. I confronted the owner of SES but to no avail. He simply refused to acknowledge the pharmacokinetic-conundrum that they've gotten themselves into. I have a feeling the SES reps have even been instructed to not venture outside of the company promo section in fear of exposure. If you plan on using any of these supplements in the future.... be sure to get the IV bag ready.
So in addition to Side Effect Sports entire lineup consisting of this flavored sand: Pre-Workout/Post Workout/Muscle Builder/Fat Burner/Energy/Endurance
MassPro Sythagen, Gaspari SuperPump Max, BSN Hyper FX/Epozine-O2, MRM Driven, Inner Armour Power Peak, are also guilty:
Br J Nutr. 2011 Feb;105(3):357-66. Epub 2010 Dec 6.
Coolen EJ, Arts IC, Bekers O, Vervaet C, Bast A, Dagnelie PC.
Oral bioavailability of ATP after prolonged administration.
Purinergic receptors are important for the regulation of inflammation, muscle contraction, neurotransmission and nociception. Extracellular ATP and its metabolites are the main ligands for these receptors. Occasional reports on beneficial results of ATP administration in human and animal studies have suggested the bioavailability of oral ATP supplements. We investigated whether prolonged daily intake of oral ATP is indeed bioavailable. Thirty-two healthy subjects were randomised to receive 0, 250, 1250 or 5000 mg ATP per d for 28 d by means of enteric-coated pellets. In addition, on days 0 and 28, all thirty-two subjects received 5000 mg ATP to determine whether prolonged administration would induce adaptations in the bioavailability of ATP. ATP supplementation for 4 weeks did not lead to changes in blood or plasma ATP concentrations. Of all ATP metabolites, only plasma uric acid levels increased significantly after the administration of 5000 mg of ATP. Prolonged administration of ATP was safe as evidenced from liver and kidney parameters. We conclude that oral administration of ATP only resulted in increased uric acid concentrations. On the basis of these findings, we seriously question the claimed efficacy of oral ATP at dosages even lower than that used in the present study.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012 Apr 17;9(1):16. [Epub ahead of print]
Arts IC, Coolen EJ, Bours MJ, Huyghebaert N, Cohen Stuart MA, Bast A, Dagnelie PC.
Adenosine 5' -triphosphate (ATP) supplements are not orally bioavailable: a randomized, placebocontrolled cross-over trial in healthy humans.
Nutritional supplements designed to increase adenosine 5' -triphosphate (ATP) concentrations are commonly used by athletes as ergogenic aids. ATP is the primary source of energy for the cells, and supplementation may enhance the ability to maintain high ATP turnover during high-intensity exercise. Oral ATP supplements have beneficial effects in some but not all studies examining physical performance. One of the remaining questions is whether orally administered ATP is bioavailable. We investigated whether acute supplementation with oral ATP administered as enteric-coated pellets led to increased concentrations of ATP or its metabolites in the circulation.
Eight healthy volunteers participated in a cross-over study. Participants were given in random order single doses of 5000 mg ATP or placebo. To prevent degradation of ATP in the acidic environment of the stomach, the supplement was administered via two types of pH-sensitive, enteric-coated pellets (targeted at release in the proximal or distal small intestine), or via a naso-duodenal tube. Blood ATP and metabolite concentrations were monitored by HPLC for 4.5 h (naso-duodenal tube) or 7 h (pellets) post-administration. Areas under the concentration vs. time curve were calculated and compared by paired-samples t-tests.
ATP concentrations in blood did not increase after ATP supplementation via enteric-coated pellets or naso-duodenal tube. In contrast, concentrations of the final catabolic product of ATP, uric acid, were significantly increased compared to placebo by ~50% after administration via proximal-release pellets (P = 0.003) and naso-duodenal tube (P = 0.001), but not after administration via distal-release pellets.
A single dose of orally administered ATP is not bioavailable, and this may explain why several studies did not find ergogenic effects of oral ATP supplementation. On the other hand, increases in uric acid after release of ATP in the proximal part of the small intestine suggest that ATP or one of its metabolites is absorbed and metabolized. Uric acid itself may have ergogenic effects, but this needs further study. Also, more studies are needed to determine whether chronic administration of ATP will enhance its oral bioavailability.